Summerhill: The Early Days

 
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Summerhill was founded in 1921 in Hellerau, a suburb of Dresden. It was part of an International school called the Neue Schule. There were wonderful facilities there and a lot of enthusiasm, 但在接下来的几个月里,尼尔对这所学校越来越不满意. He felt it was run by idealists – they disapproved of tobacco, 狐步舞和电影院,而他想让孩子们过自己的生活. He said:

"I am only just realising the absolute freedom of my scheme of education. 我看到所有外在的强迫都是错误的,内在的强迫才是唯一的价值. And if Mary or David wants to laze about, 懒散是他们此刻性格所必需的一件事. Every moment of a healthy child's life is a working moment. A child has no time to sit down and laze. 偷懒是不正常的,它是一种恢复,因此当它存在时是必要的."

和诺斯塔特夫人(后来成为他的第一任妻子,在夏山被称为林斯太太), Neill moved his school to Sonntagsberg in Austria. 那里的环境是田园般的——山顶上的城堡——但当地人, a Catholic community, were hostile.

By 1923 Neill had moved to the town of Lyme Regis in the south of England, to a house called Summerhill where he began with 5 pupils. The school continued there until 1927, when it moved to the present site at Leiston in the county of Suffolk, taking the name of Summerhill with it.

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尼尔继续和林斯夫人一起管理学校,林斯夫人在十大靠谱彩票平台的组建和运营中发挥了关键作用. She was a warm, outgoing, 有才华的音乐家和教师,并拥有宝贵的实践和组织技能. 她善于交际的天性使她能够保护尼尔免受学校吸引来的不受欢迎的访客的伤害,同时她的耐心和善良确保了孩子和工作人员提出的问题都能机智和可靠地处理. 她非常尊重尼尔,就像他尊重她一样,她在尼尔不在的时候接替了他的工作.

战争迫使莱斯顿的房子撤离,学校搬到了威尔士的菲斯蒂尼奥格. 林斯太太病了,需要不断的护理,最终于1944年4月去世. She was loved by many and sadly missed by Neill, 她温柔的讣告清楚地表明了她对尼尔本人和夏山的重要性. 尼尔后来嫁给了学校的工作人员埃娜·伍夫(Ena Wooff). Lins but who also worked as a cook and housemother at the school. 战争结束后,他们回到莱斯顿,住在一个破旧的夏山,夏山曾被军队使用过,现在已经破败不堪. Neill referred to this for many years afterwards, having to put much work into restoring the buildings and cleaning them up.

The school continued to be controversial, being depicted in the press as the "Do As You Please" school. Neill, however, 曾受到许多教育家和知名人士的尊敬如, among others, Bertrand Russell and Henry Miller.

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在50年代末最后一次下降之前,学生的摄入量多年来一直在波动. Things were looking black as the pupil numbers reached around 25. However, at that time Neill was approached by Harold Hart, a publisher from the USA, who wanted to publish a compilation of Neill's books. 他们一起出版了《十大靠谱彩票平台》一书. 这本书在美国一炮而红,成为全国非虚构类畅销书的第一名. 这本书很快在英国和其他许多国家出版,夏山的情况开始好转. Pupil numbers went up, many from the USA; interest in the school bloomed bringing in many visitors, to the dismay of the kids. At times there were coach loads. 过了一段时间,尼尔和社区都厌倦了这种关注,遁入了一个相对安静的时代.

尼尔在他的日子里不太积极地参与学校的活动,但他与学校里发生的事情保持联系. In 1973 his health declined and he was admitted to Ipswich Hospital. 后来,他被送往当地一家小医院,于1973年9月23日平静地去世. 五天后,十大靠谱彩票平台的新学期开始了,埃娜·尼尔正式成为校长. In reality though, 在尼尔去世前,埃娜在尼尔的祝福下经营了大约三年的学校. 这三年,加上她第一次在夏山工作是在二战期间,这意味着她完全有资格担任这个职位. 她清楚地理解自由和放纵之间的区别,并且时刻准备着, if it was necessary, to make it clear to the kids in no uncertain terms what that difference was. 伊纳·尼尔是一个令人敬畏的人物,但她坚强的外表掩盖了一个相当有同情心的人,她经常被要求成为孩子和员工的母亲. 埃娜对生活和学校的管理采取了一种务实的“严肃”态度. She took over at a difficult time. 七十年代中期和八十年代初是富裕国家经济衰退的时期. This, 再加上尼尔的思想不像20世纪60年代那么受欢迎,这意味着学生越来越少. It required a strong, 像Ena这样有决心的人,在这个困难时期维持学校的运转.

Ena Neill一直经营这所学校,直到1985年退休,他们的女儿Zoë, the current head teacher, took over.

 

Summerhill: Nowadays

 

Zoë Readhead, Neill’s daughter who was born and educated at Summerhill, took over the running of the school in September 1985. It was a time when big changes where coming to the world of education; the founding of Ofsted in the UK in 1992 and a massive increase in government regulation being just one of many.

In addition, 世界即将见证一场以互联网为形式的技术革命,在相对较短的时间内,学校从1985年的一台电视和一台视频播放器变成了今天的学校,每个人都在自己的后口袋里装着“电视和其他很多东西”!

 

Zoë and Tony

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Over the years Zoë has guided the school through these many changes, 她始终忠于父亲在20世纪20年代制定的愿景,即创建一所适合孩子的学校,而不是让孩子适应学校. This, together with her deep, innate understanding of children and childhood has ensured that today, under her guidance, the school continues to thrive. Zoë不仅是4个孩子的母亲,5个孙子的祖母,而且是过去30多年来每一个越过夏山门槛的孩子(实际上是工作人员)的“母亲”.

If it has been Zoë’s role to lead the school into the 21st century, it has been Tony Readhead, Zoë’s husband, 谁承担了让学校建立一个坚实的财政基础,以建立一个值得21世纪的基础设施的重担. 这项任务需要托尼充分利用他丰富的商业经验和他的商业头脑, at the same time, continue to run and develop the family farm.

Together, 托尼和Zoë确保了十大靠谱彩票平台继续成为世界各地教育工作者的灵感来源.

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威尔和亨利·里德海德从小就完全沉浸在夏山吗. 作为Zoë和托尼的儿子,以及学校创始人的孙子,他们都在夏山接受教育, like their older sister Amy and younger brother Neill, both of whom are actively involved in the school. 今天,威尔和亨利与Zoë共同领导学校社区,并拥有各自的专业领域, which they lead on in their own right.

Will and Henry

 

威尔负责繁忙和流行的木制品和已建立的金属制品区. Will is a very talented craftsman and his work can be seen on www.redfiveforge.com . He also takes the lead on Health and Safety, 与外部机构保持联系,确保学校符合国家法律的要求.

亨利是夏山的大使,在全国和国际上传播夏山的信息. 他曾在会议上发言,演讲和领导研讨会赢得了世界各地的许多地方. He is now co-directing the A.S.尼尔CIC(社区利益公司),为学校和其他教育机构提供支持,以及专业发展课程, seminars, conferences, events and research.

www.asneillsummerhillcic.co.uk

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在家族第三代的支持和力量下, Summerhill continues to develop. 立足于坚实的基础,坚持自身的价值,以开放的心态迎接新形势.

Summerhill's fight with the UK government

In March 2000, 1999年3月,英国教育标准办公室(OfSTED)的一次检查报告对其进行了谴责, which demanded changes to the Summerhill philosophy, 学校在独立学校法庭上捍卫孩子们的权利和声音,赢得了一场与教育与就业部门的历史性法律战.
在英国教育标准局的报告发表后,孩子们联系了儿童法律中心,想看看他们是否能得到帮助,并请律师代表他们. Meanwhile, Zoë & Tony Readhead were taking their own steps to prevent the school's closure.

Stuart Ainsworth, Senior Lecturer in Educational Studies, Co-director of the Equality and Discrimination Centre, Strathclyde University, had contacted them and suggested that perhaps, under European law, the government were acting illegally in threatening closure of Summerhill. 他提供的信息和支持给了他们勇气,让他们有勇气依法打官司. A friend from the City of London recommended a prominent lawyer, Mark Stephens, who regularly deals with high profile cases. 他们拜访了他,他同意在独立学校法庭上代表学校行事, the legal framework for appealing against a Notice of Complaint, which the school had now received. The notice of Complaint listed six areas of concern that had to be rectified; otherwise the school would face closure.

The media followed the case with interest. 全国报纸、外国报纸、广播新闻和电视都报道了学校可能被关闭的消息.

1999年夏天,学校举办了一次十大正规彩票平台“自由儿童”的国际会议, 研究另类学校对国家教育系统的贡献. 这也是一个发表联合声明拯救夏山的平台,也是“销毁报告”运动的开始, initiated by Michael Newman, Science teacher at Summerhill. 他曾在《十大正规彩票平台》上读过一篇文章,其中克里斯·伍德海德(教育与教育教育办公室主任)说,如果学校校长不喜欢他们的教育与教育教育办公室报告,他们应该把它们扔掉. 迈克尔找到了这篇报道的标题,并在全国和全世界范围内发起了一场“扔掉”夏山报告的运动. 人们被拍到在许多不同的场景下“扔”夏山报告. 有些人从其他国家发来自己的照片,最远的是澳大利亚的一所学校.

在这次会议之后,伊恩·坎宁安教授带领一组来自教育领域的独立专家发表了十大正规彩票平台夏山的独立报告,作为对英国教育标准局报告的直接回应. They visited the school and made a thorough evaluation of what they saw. The result of this inspection can be seen at: www.selfmanagedlearning.org.

The school planned a campaign, writing to MP's, getting support from educationalists, parents and children. The response from the public was overwhelming. Letters, emails and donations poured in. 据估计,这个病例花费了13万英镑,其中大约9万英镑是通过捐款筹集的, many people giving generously.

该案由世界知名的人权捍卫者、皇家法律顾问杰弗里·罗伯逊(Geoffrey Robertson)辩护. 在听证会的头三天里,他审问了一名证人. 在这段时间里,夏山被曝光在TBW的秘密名单(被监视)上,这就是为什么学校经常被检查的原因.

After three days of the hearing at the Royal Courts of Justice in London, which most of the children attended, the DfEE capitulated, asking for an agreement with the school. This was duly drawn up and voted for in a unique Meeting held, by permission of the judges, in the Royal Court itself. 这是一个历史性的时刻——可能是第一次在皇家法庭上举行民主会议,当然也是第一次在皇家法庭上举行儿童会议.

夏山现在是美国最受法律保护的学校,其独特的检查程序是第一个包括儿童的声音, 在英国教育标准局新宣布的计划考虑学生意见之前. 夏山是唯一一所通过合法任命的专家直接参与检查的学校. 来自各党派的议员们都强烈批评这样一个事实,即这一保护措施是学校花了如此大的代价才获得的.

2002年夏天,这所学校迎来了案件发生后的第一批督察, as well as the elected experts. The inspection process went smoothly and, guided by the experts, the inspectors seemed more open minded in their approach. The subsequent summing up and letter that the school received was positive. This was just a registration visit, not a reported inspection.